On Whom is Qurbaani Waajib?
Qurbaani is waajib on every Muslim who
is of sound mind, mature
(who has reached the age of puberty), Muqeem (i.e. he is not a shar'ee traveler) and possesses the amount of fifty two and
half tolas of silver (i.e. 612,36 grams) or wealth equivalent to that value which is
in excess of one's aslee (basic) needs.
It is not necessary that this amount be in one's possession for a complete lunar year. It's possession during the three days of Qurbaani will make Qurbaani obligatory. Qurbaani is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it waajib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not waajib on a Shar'ee traveler.
NOTE: A shar'ee traveler is he who goes on a journey with an intention Of travelling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveler as soon as he goes out of his town.
Mas'alah: If a person on whom Qurbaani is not waajib, purchases an animal with the intention of performing Qurbaani, it will then become waajib to perform that Qurbaani.
Mas'alah: It is highly virtuous for one on whom Qurbaani is not waajib to offer sacrifice for the pleasure of Allah. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the Ahaadeeth.
Mas'alah: During the days of Qurbaani, Sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for Qurbaani nor fulfil the waajib. Qurbaani is a unique ibaadah. Just as zakaat cannot compensate for Hajj, or sawm (fasting) cannot compensate for salaat, similarly charity cannot compensate for Qurbaani.
However, if the days of Qurbaani had passed, and the Qurbaani was not offered due to not knowing, laxity and negligence or for some other valid reason, then it becomes waajib to give in Sadaqah the price of Qurbaani animal or the animal itself to the poor.
Mas'alah: If a traveler returned home or a person acquires the required wealth on the 12th of Zil Hijjah before sunset, it will be waajib upon him to perform Qurbaani.
Mas'alah: A traveler who makes intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveler. He must offer Qurbaani if he possesses the prescribed amount.
Mas'alah: A Haajee who stayed in Makkah Mukarramah for fifteen days or more before 8th Zil Hijjah, does not remain a traveler. He must offer Qurbaani if he possesses the prescribed amount. If he is performing Hajj-e-Tamattu' or Hajj-e-Qiraan, he will have to sacrifice two animals - one for Qurbaani and one for Hajj.
Days of Qurbaani