The I’tidaal (Equilibrium) and Husn (Beauty) of the Four Internal Faculties

The Faculty of Knowledge (ilm)

The I'tidaal of ilm is man's ability to distinguish between statements of falsehood and truth; between beliefs of Haqq and Baatil, and between deeds of vice and virtue. When this ability has been cultivated the fruits of wisdom (Hikmat) will be experienced. Regarding such Hikmat, Allah Ta'aalaa says:

"He who has been granted Hikmat, indeed he has been granted abundant goodness"

In reality this hikmat, is the root of all significance and excellences.

The faculty of Wrath and the faculty of desire

The I’tidaal of these two faculties is that both begin to operate along the lines of Hikmat and Shari'at, submitting in entirety to the demands and commands of the Shari'at and abstaining from its prohibitions.

The Faculty of Justice

The I’tidaal of the faculty of justice is to hold the reins of the faculty of wrath and the faculty of desire and to ensure that they conform to the Deen and Intelligence. Aql (intelligence) is like the king and the faculty of justice is like the deputy of the king, It has to comply with the orders of the king.

The faculties of Ghadhabiyyah (wrath) and Shahwaaniyah (desire) should be like the trained hunting dogs of a hunter or like a well-trained horse, answering and acting in accordance with the call of the master. When these conditions are cultivated and become praiseworthy, man will be described as the repository of beautiful character. His Seerat will be said to be beautiful.

About the Faculty of Wrath

When this faculty is in the state of I'tidaal it is known as Shujaa’at (Valour, bravery), This is praiseworthy by Allah Ta'aalaa. An excess in this faculty will be called Tahawwur (rashness) and a deficiency will be termed Jubnat (cowardice). Both the conditions of Tahawwur and Jubnat are reprehensible.

In the wake of the laudable state of Shujaa’at (Valour) flow the qualities of kindness, chivalry, courage, generosity, forbearance, steadfastness, tenderness, the ability to restrain anger, dignity and far-sightedness in all affairs. The state of Tahawwur produces inexperience, boastfulness, pride, inability to restrain anger, and vanity. The state of Jubnat creates cowardice, disgrace, contempt, inferiority. All these lowly qualities find external manifestation.


The name of the state of I'tidaal of the faculty of desire is called Paar-saa’ee (Chastity). When this faculty exceeds equilibrium, it will be termed Hirs (greed) and Hawaa (lust). Allah Ta'ala loves the condition of chastity. The excellences produced by chastity are generosity, shame, patience, contentment and it is also termed Ittiqaa, In this state man's desire and hope decrease, fear and humility increase and the wish to aid others is engendered, If this faculty falls below I’tidaal it results in greed, expectation, flattery, servitude to wealthy persons, contempt for the poor, shamelessness, extravagance, show, narrow mindness, impotency, envy, etc.


Equilibrium in Aql makes man wise, cultured, sharp-witted and far-sighted. His advice will be sound and he possess the ability to act in all affairs. Ingenuity manifests in him. If Aql exceeds I’tidaal it will be called deceptive, fraudulent and imposture. Aql below the degree of I’tidaal will be ignorance, dim-wittedness and stupidity. The consequence of this is that such a person is quickly misled. In short, man will be described as having a beautiful Seerat only when all these faculties are in the state of equilibrium, It has been said that the best of affairs is its middle (its state of equilibrium). Allah Ta'ala says:

"Our servants are such that they neither are extravagant nor are they niggardly, but they remain in a condition in between (i.e. in the stale of equilibrium)."

Internal beauty (Seerat) varies with people just as external beauty (Soorat) differs. The possessor of the most beautiful Seerat was Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. About his excellence, the Qur'aan declares:

"Verily, you are on a splendid character."

Among the Muslims the degree of beauty of character (Seerat) will be in proportion to the degree in which they resemble the character of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. The greater the resemblance in them with the character of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam , the greater will be the beauty of their Seerat, It is evident that success and fortune in the Aakhirah will be in proportion to the beauty of Seerat acquired.

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